## Description |

Turbulent flow in a square cross-section duct made of a 180^{o} bend and two
long straight inlet and outlet parts.
3D flow with constant temperature.

180^{o} bend section connected to straight inlet and outlet tangents, all
of square section: *D* × *D* = 88.9 × 88.9 mm.
Centreline curvature radius of the bend: *R _{c}* = 3.357

Air at standard conditions.

- Kinematic viscosity: = 1.72×10
^{-5}m^{2}/s. - Inlet bulk axial velocity
*W*= 11 m/s._{B} - Reynolds number based on the bulk axial velocity
*W*:_{B}*Re*=*W*/ = 56,690._{B}D

The following measurements are available for the cross section located at
*z = -D*. They correspond to a fully developed turbulent in a square section
duct.

Contour maps as *f(x,y)* of:

- First order moments:
*U*,*V*,*W* - Second order moments
- Turbulent kinetic energy:
*k/W*(deduced)_{B}^{2}

Additional values of *k* and
issued by numerical simulations are also available in the file input.

## Experimental Details |

Velocity measurements using a rotatable hot-wire probe.

Analyzed but no published values.

## Available Measurements |

Contour maps at 5 different angular positions ( = 0^{o}, 45^{o}, 90^{o},
135^{o}, 180^{o}) of:

- First order moments:
*U/W*,_{B}*V/W*,_{B}*W/W*_{B} - Second order moments:
*u'/W*,_{B}*v'/W*,_{B}*w'/W*, /_{B}*W*, /_{B}^{2}*W*, /_{B}^{2}*W*_{B}^{2} - Turbulent kinetic energy:
*k/W*_{B}^{2}

## Previous and Reference Numerical Solutions |

None available yet.

## Main References |

- CHOI, Y.D., MOON C. & Yang, S.H. (1990). Measurment of turbulent flow characteristics of square duct with a 180 degree bend by not wire anemometer.
*International Symp. on Engineering Turbulenze modelling and measurement*,*(no page numbers)*. - CHOI, Y.D., IACOVIDES, H. & LAUNDER, B.E. (1989). Numerical computation of turbulent flow in a square-sectioned 180 deg bend.
*J. Fluids Engg 111, 59*,*(see Chang, Physico-Chem. Hydr. 4, 243, 1983 for expts.)*. - SOTIROPOULOS, F. AND PATEL, V.C. (1993). Evaluation of some near-wall models for the reynolds-stress transport equations in a complex 3-d shear flow.
*Near wall turbulent flows, pp. 987*.

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