U-bend circular cross section

Authors: Azzola J., Humphrey J.A.C.,

Type: Experimental

Status: stargold



Flow Parameters

Reference Publications



Turbulent isothermal flow in a 180 degree pipe bend. Several experimental works are available (1, 2) along with a number of numerical investigation (2, 4, 5). Reference 3 reports also a case with heat transfer. Results are compared with the above mentioned experimental results (velocity profiles at different section of the domain).

Geometry definition

The geometry is presented in Fig. 1, with the following parameters:
  • Diameter: $D=0.0445\, m$
  • Radius of curvature of the bend: $R_c/D=3.375$
Fig. 1: Geometry of the U-bend test case

Flow Parameters

The flow parameters are the following

  • Dynamic viscosity: $\mu=1\cdot10^{-3}\, kg\, m^{-1}\, s^{-1}$
  • Density : $\rho=1\cdot10^3\,kg/m^3$
  • Bulk velocity : $U_b=1\,m/s$
  • Reynolds number : $Re=4.45\cdot10^{4}$

Reference Publications

  1. Azzola J., Humphrey J.A.C., Developing turbulent flow in a 180 degree curved pipe and its downstream tangent, Report LBL-17681, Material and Molecular Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California.
  2. Azzola J., Humphrey J.A.C., Iacovides H., Launder B.E., Developing turbulent flow in a U-bend of Circular Cross-Section : Measurement and Computation, Transaction of the ASME, Vol. 108, pp. 214-221, June 1986.
  3. Baughn J.W., Iacovides H., Jackson D.C., Launder B.E., Local heat transfer measurements in turbulent flow around a 180 degree pipe bend, Journal of Heat Transfer, pp. 43-48, Vol. 109, 1987.
  4. So R.M.C. , Zhang H.S., Lai Y.G., Secondary cells and separation in developing laminar curved pipe flow, Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics, pp. 141-162, 1991.
  5. So R.M.C., Zhang H.S., Lai Y.G., Turbulence driven secondary flow in a curved pipe Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics, pp. 163-180, 1991.


Simulation results available for this case:
Code Version Author Restrictions
Code_Saturne 2.0-beta2 A. Defossez - D. Sénéchal AccessEDFGroup
Number of topics: 1


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Topic revision: r38 - 2011-09-02 - 12:07:37 - DavidMonfort

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